The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) system is the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of humans and is composed of the two polymorphic classes HLA-I (A, B, and C) and HLA-II (DR, DQ, and DP). Basically, four different areas of indication can be distinguished for HLA typing:
- Disease association
The serological determination of HLA proteins of the HLA-A, -B, -C and -DR genetic positions is primarily performed with the complement-dependent microlymphocytotoxicity test (LCT) or Terasaki test, which has been standardised since 1964. The basis for this test method is the cytolysis of the lymphocytes to be tested, which is caused by the antibody-antigen mediated activation of the complement system. Permeabilised lymphocytes are generally stained with chromophores or fluorophores and evaluated microscopically.